ACID, BASE, AND SALT

ACID –

 

It is derived from the Latin word which means ‘sour’.

The fruits and vegetables are sour due to the presence of acids.

Most of the digestive fluids of humans and animals contain acids.

Acid when dissolved in water produces hydronium ions(H3O+).

All the characteristic features of acids are due to hydronium ions.

Acids are classified in so many ways according to the factors –

 

Classification based on the strength of an acid.

Classification based on the basicity of acid.

Classification based on the concentration of acid.

Classification based on the presence of acid.

 

The hydronium ions are responsible for the strength of an acid, the greater the number of hydronium ions greater will be the strength of an acid.

 

STRONG ACIDS – An acid that dissociates completely in water. Examples of strong acids – hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, etc.

 

 

WEAK ACIDS – An acid that only dissociates partially in the water. Examples of weak acids – acetic acid, formic acid, carbonic acid, etc.

 

BASE –

 

Bases are bitter.

They are soapy and slippery in touch.

When dissolved in water produces OH-ions.

The solution of the base in water is known as alkali.

Like acids, bases can also be weak and strong.

More the hydroxide ions produce more the strength of the base.

The property of the base is due to the presence of OH- ions.

 

STRONG BASE – A base that dissociates completely in water. Examples – NaOH, KOH.

 

 

WEAK BASE – A base that dissociates partially in the water. Examples – NH4OH.

 

 

INDICATORS

To test whether the substance is base or acid, there is a special type of substance known as indicators.

When added with the solution containing acid or base the indicator changes its color.

When added to an acidic solution the indicator changes its color to red. Whereas, when added to the basic solution it changes into blue color.

Generally, it is available as red and blue litmus paper.

 

SALTS –

It is the result of the mixture of acid and base. Both are neutralized.

The non-metallic ions of acid and metallic ions of base combine and form salt.

Examples – NaCl, NaHCO3, NaOH.

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