The brain is the central information processing organ in our body, and acts as the ‘command and control system’.

  • It controls voluntary movements, hunger, thirst, thermoregulation, balance, functioning of organs, circadian rhythms of the body, and human behavior.
  • It is the site for processing memory, speech, hearing, emotions, and thoughts.
  • The human brain is well guarded by the skull.
  • Whereas, inside the skull, the brain is covered by cranial meninges.
  • The brain can be split into 3 major parts –
  1. Forebrain
  2. Midbrain
  3. Hindbrain



  • The forebrain comprises – cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus.


  • It forms the main part of the brain.
  • There is a deep cleft that divides the cerebrum into 2 halves – left and right cerebral hemispheres.
  • It is responsible for memory and communication.


  • It is primarily concerned with somatic functions.


  • The second most crucial part of the brain.
  • It lies at the base of the thalamus.
  • It regulates the temperature of the body, urges for eating, and drinking.


  • It is located between the thalamus or hypothalamus of the forebrain and pons of the hindbrain.
  • It regulates hearing, movement, pain, sleep, and hearing.


  • It comprises of pons, cerebellum, and medulla.


  • Pons contains different types of fiber tracts that interconnect different regions of the brain.
  • It works together with the medulla oblongata and plays a critical role in generating the respiratory rhythm of breathing.


  • It provides an additional surface to many neurons.
  • It provides maintenance balance and posture.


  • It is connected to the spinal cord.
  • It contains centers that command respiration, cardiovascular reflexes, and gastric secretions.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *