• On earth, carbon is found in various forms.
  • It occurs in elemental form.
  • Mian reservoirs of carbon are the ocean, rocks, atmosphere, petroleum, coal, and carbonates.
  • It is found in combined form as well like, it is found as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, as carbonate and hydrogen-salts in various minerals, while all the life forms are dependent on carbon-containing molecules like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and nucleic acid.
  • Carbonate salts are the constituent of various animal’s exoskeletons and endoskeletons.
  • The carbon is incorporated into life forms through the basic process of photosynthesis which is being performed in the presence of sunlight by all life forms that contain chlorophyll. This process converts the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or dissolved it in water into glucose molecules.
  • These glucose molecules are further converted into other substances or used to provide energy for the synthesis of any other biologically important molecule. For example, the utilization of glucose to provide energy to living things involve the process of respiration in which, the oxygen may or may not be used to convert glucose back into carbon dioxide.
  • The carbon dioxide then goes back into the atmosphere.
  • Another process that adds to the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the process of combustion where fuels are like to burn to provide energy for various needs like cooking, heating, etc.
  • Carbon is thus cycled repeatedly through different forms by various physical and biological activities.

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