ERUPTION OF EARTH’S MOST ACTIVE VOLCANO ON BIG ISLAND IN HAWAII | UPSC EXAM

INTRODUCTION

  • On September 30, 2021, the Klauea volcano, one of the world’s most active volcanoes, erupted on Hawaii’s Big Island. The volcano is said to have erupted within the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, although there is no danger to people or property.
  • Lava fountains covered the crater’s base, while clouds of volcanic gas rose into the air, according to camera footage of the crater. In December 2020, the same part of the volcano erupted again, lasting until May 2021.
  • The Geological Survey officials from US verified that an eruption started in Kilauea’s Halemaumau crater, located at the volcano’s summit. Officials verified that the eruption is not occurring in a residential area. It is presently taking place fully within the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park’s closed area.
  • Officials had previously detected increasing seismic activity and ground swelling in the area, and had consequently upped the alert levels.

 

THE KILAUEA ERUPTION OF 2018 –

  • The eruption of the Klauea volcano in 2018 was the biggest in millennia, and it was accompanied by a major summit fall. Hundreds of homes were destroyed and thousands of people were displaced as a result of the volcanic explosion. Prior to this, the volcano has been steadily erupting since 1983, a period of more than 30 years.
  • The eruption lasted roughly three months and altered the island of Hawai‘i forever. Large lava flows engulfed territory southeast of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, destroying Puna District residential neighbourhoods. A series of earthquakes preceded the lava fountains and torrents.
  • On June 4th, the enormous lava flow reached the Pacific Ocean near Kapoho Bay. Green Lake, Hawai’i’s biggest natural freshwater lake, was likewise vaporised as lava entered the Kapoho Crater.
  • By August, lava flows had covered roughly 35 km2 of land and generated around 875 acres of new land in the ocean. Several monuments and neighbourhoods were destroyed to a large expanse of charred stones by the red hot molten lava. The eruption ultimately died down in August, and the eruption was declared over in December.
  • The 2018 volcanic activity in the United States was the most catastrophic since Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980.

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