INDIA’S INDIGENOUS NAVIGATION SYSTEM EXPLAINED : (IRNSS)

INTRODUCTION

IRNSS is an independent and autonomous regional navigation satellite system that is being developed in India. It is formed to provide precise information of position to users in India and the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary. Its functioning name is NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation).

An extended service area lies between the primary service area and a rectangle area enclosed by the 30th parallel south to 50th parallel north and the 30th meridian east to 130th meridian east.

The government of India permitted the project in May 2006 with the aim that it will be completed and executed by 2016.

It can replace the US-owned global positioning system (GPS) in the Indian ocean.

IRNSS can provide 2 types of services –

1.Standard positioning service (SPS)

2.Restricted service (RS)

SPS is provided to all users whereas, RS is an encrypted service only provided to authorized users.

 

APPLICATIONS OF IRNSS

  1. Navigation in every area like terrestrial, aerial, and marine.
  2. Tracking of vehicle.
  3. Visual and voice navigation.
  4. Mapping.
  5. Interacting with mobile phones.

 

To date, ISRO has built a total of 9 satellites in the IRNSS series, from which 8 are currently in orbit. Three of these satellites are in geostationary orbit (GEO) while the remaining 6 in geosynchronous orbits (GSO).

Objects which have orbital speed the same as the earth’s rotation are known as GSO. Whereas, having the orbital speed the same as the planet’s rotation is known as GEO.

 

LIST OF NAVIGATION SATELLITES

  1. IRNSS-1A – It is the first satellite.

Launch date – 1 July 2013

Orbit type – GSO

Mass – 1425 kg

Launch vehicle – PSLV-C22/IRNSS-1A

 

  1. IRNSS-1B – Launched on 4 April 2014

Orbit type– GSO

Mass – 1432 kg

Launch vehicle – PSLV-C24/IRNSS-1B

 

  1. IRNSS-1C – Launched on16 October 2014

Orbit type– GEO

Mass – 1425 kg

Launch vehicle – PSLV-C26/IRNSS-1C

 

  1. IRNSS-1D – Launched on 28 March 2015

Orbit type– GSO

Mass – 1425 kg

Launch vehicle – PSLV-C27/IRNSS-1D

 

  1. IRNSS-1E – Launched on 20 January 2016

Orbit type– GSO

Mass – 1425 kg

Launch vehicle – PSLV-C31/IRNSS-1E

 

  1. IRNSS-1F – Launched on 10 March 2016

Orbit type– GEO

Mass – 1425 kg

Launch vehicle – PSLV-C32/IRNSS-1F

 

  1. IRNSS-1G – Launched on 28 April 2016

Orbit type– GEO

Mass – 1425 kg

Launch vehicle – PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G

 

  1. IRNSS-1H – Launched on 31 August 2017

Orbit type– GSO

Remarks – launched unsuccessfully.

Launch vehicle – PSLV-C39/IRNSS-1H

 

  1. IRNSS-1I – Launched on 12 April 2018

Orbit type– GSO

Mass – 1425 kg

Launch vehicle – PSLV-C41/IRNSS-1I

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