Union Executive is discussed in Articles 52 to 78 of Part V of the Constitution. The President is the head of Indian State. He is the nominal head and the first citizen of India who acts as a symbol for unity, integrity and solidarity of the nation.


  • President is elected indirectly for a period of five years.
  • He is elected not by the people of India but by the members of the electoral college consisting of:
  1. the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament.
  2. the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the states; and
  3. the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry.
  • President’s election takes place by system of proportional representation by means of single transferrable vote.
  • President can be re-elected.
  • The Constitution makers wanted to keep an indirect election process for the President because direct election is expensive, time and energy consuming due to vast electorate. It also ensures harmony with the Parliamentary system of government where president do not have real powers.


  • A candidate for this position must be citizen of India.
  • He should be 35 years old or above.
  • He should be qualified for election as member of the Lok Sabha.
  • He should not hold any office of profit under the Union or state government, local or any public authority.

OATH:  The president has to make an affirmation or subscribe to an oath before residing in the office. The President swears –

  1. To faithfully execute the office
  2. To preserve, protect and defend the constitution and the law
  3. To devote himself to the service and well being of the people of the India.


  • The presidents in India holds office for a term of 5 years from the date on which he enters upon his office.
  • He is also eligible for the re-election for end number of times (Unlike in USA it is for twice only)
  • He can hold office beyond his term until his successor assumes the charge.


  • Removal of the President is possible through a process of impeachment.
  • It can be done only in the case of ‘violation of the Constitution’.
  • The impeachment charge can be initiated by either House of the Parliament.
  • The charges must be signed by at least 1/4th members of the House and a 14 days’ notice period should be given to the President.
  • After the charge is signed by 2/3rd members of that House, it is sent to the other House. If the other House also pass the impeachment resolution by 2/3rd majority, the president stand removed from his office from that date.
  • Impeachment is a quasi-judicial procedure in the Parliament. Two things should be noted:

(a) the nominated members of either House of Parliament can

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