The Global Hunger Index is a tool prepared by An Irish Aid Agency known as ‘Concern Worldwide’ in association with the German organization ‘Welt Hunger Hilfe’ to track and assess the hunger level of the countries. This list is released every year. It works to raise awareness and take actions to reduce hunger across the world.
The list is released annually in the month of October. The measurement of the hunger level is done region-wise as well as country-wise.
Global Hunger Index aims to achieve Zero Hunger by 2030 at international, national, and regional levels.
- The calculation of the Global Hunger Index is done based on four indicators:
- Undernourishment- a population with insufficient caloric intake (data taken from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization).
- Child wasting- Children under the age of five having low weight for their height (data taken from UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and the Demographic and Health Surveys Program).
- Child stunting- Children under the age of five having low height for their age (data taken from UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and the Demographic and Health Surveys Program).
- Child mortality- mortality rate of children under the age of five (data taken from the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation)
- The hunger level is assessed on a scale of 100 points based upon the above criteria, wherein the score 100 denotes extreme hunger while 0 denotes low or no hunger. The scale goes from low to highly alarming.
- There are eighteen countries with less than 5 scores, which shared the top rank. They are China, Brazil, Kuwait.
- While Somalia got the highest score of 50.8, leading the table with extreme hunger.
- Similar countries with extreme alarming rate are Yemen, Madagascar, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Chad, and the Central African Republic.
- There are 31 countries like India, Papa New Guinea, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, with severe level.
STATUS OF INDIA
- India has been ranked at 101st position out of a total of 116 countries.
- It has scored 27.5 points which shows a serious level of hunger in the country.
- There are only 15 countries ranked worse than India.
- Earlier, in 2020, India was ranked at 94th position.
- In the latest edition, India has dropped to the position behind neighboring countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, etc.
- The share of the wasting among children has also increased from 17.1 % to 17.3%.
- In fact, India slipped two ranks in the Global Sustainable Development Report,2021, due to significant challenges like ending hunger and achieving food security.
- However, India has improved in terms of the under-5 mortality rate, the prevalence of undernourishment, and child stunting.
- Overall, the condition has improved comparatively as in 2000 the score was 38.8 but now has been dipped to 28.8-27.5 in years between 2012-2021.
THREATS TO FOOD SECURITY
The current scenario of the world battling with conflict, climate change, and the COVID-19 pandemic has hindered the world’s growth. It has also intensified the food security concerns leading to a dip in the overall progress. The report suggests that if the situation deteriorates at this rate, it would be difficult for the 47 countries, including India, to achieve the 2030 objective of GHI.